My friend went on a mission trip to Thailand when we were in college and came back repeating the Thai saying "Same Same but Different". I love that phrase and have been using it since then to describe fashion, recipes, books, really anything and everything. It's a very useful expression and feel free to add it to your daily lexicon if you're not currently familiar with it. Once I started working as a reading specialist, I found myself applying the saying to words as well. The majority of the struggling readers I've worked with over the years have been English language learners. When I work with them, I find myself apologizing to the students on behalf of my native language. English is tricky, y'all! There are so many synonyms for words. Letter sounds change, and there are more irregular words than phonics rules for people to remember. When my students make errors on words or get confused decoding words that look similar to other words, I say "Same Same but Different" as shorthand for my longer "English is a tough and confusing language" speech. Once I say that, the students know to go back and look at each letter sound in the word and try to decode again, choosing the correct word that makes sense in the context of the reading sentence.
I've taken hundreds of running records over the years, and I've noticed consistent same same but different errors made by elementary readers. Here is a list of commonly switched words that I compiled based on my students' miscues. I made a game on Boom Learning for my kids to get extra practice with those tricky words.
What words do your students switch when reading? Are they the same as the mistakes my readers make?